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<application> The {knapsack problem} restricted so that the number of each item is zero or one. (1995-03-13)

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Free On-line Dictionary of Computing

FOLDOC is a searchable dictionary of acronyms,
jargon, programming languages, tools, architecture, operating
systems, networking, theory, conventions, standards,
mathematics, telecoms, electronics, institutions, companies,
projects, products, history, in fact anything to do with
computing.

Copyright 1993 by Denis Howe

Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this
document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation
License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by the
Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, Front-
or Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the
section entitled "{GNU Free Documentation License}".

Please refer to the dictionary as "The Free On-line Dictionary
of Computing, http://foldoc.org/, Editor Denis Howe" or similar.

The dictionary has been growing since 1985 and now contains
over 14000 definitions in over five megabytes of text.
Entries are cross-referenced to each other and to related
resources elsewhere on the net.

Where {LaTeX} commands for certain non-{ASCII} symbols are
mentioned, they are described in their own entries. "\" is
also used to represent the Greek lower-case lambda used in
{lambda-calculus}. Cross-references to other entries look
{like this}. Note that not all cross-references actually lead
anywhere yet, but if you find one that leads to something
inappropriate, please {let me know (feedback.html)}. Dates
after entries indicate when that entry was last updated. They
do not imply that it was up-to-date at that time.

You can search the latest version of the dictionary on the
{WWW} at URL http://foldoc.org/. If you find an entry that is
wrong or inadequate please let me know.

See {Pronunciation} for how to interpret the pronunciation
given for some entries.

{More about FOLDOC (about.html)}.

(2007-07-25)

Acknowledgements

Many thanks to the hundreds of {contributors
(contributors.html)}, and especially to the {Guest Editors
(editors.html)}, mirror site maintainers and the maintainers
of the following resources from which some entries originate:

Mike Sendall's STING Software engineering glossary
, 1993-10-13,

Bill Kinnersley's {Language List
(http://people.ku.edu/~nkinners/LangList/Extras/langlist.htm)}
v2.2, 1994-01-15,

Mark Hopkins' catalogue of Free Compilers and Interpreters
v6.4, 1994-02-28,

The on-line hacker {Jargon File} v3.0.0, 1993-07-27,

Internet Users' Glossary (RFC 1392, FYI 18), Jan 1993.

John Cross's computer glossary, 1994-11-01.

John Bayko's Great Microprocessors of the Past and Present,
v4.0.0, 1994-08-18.

{Electronic Commerce Dictionary}.

(2007-11-16)

Missing definition

First, this is an (English language)
__computing__ dictionary. It includes lots of terms from
related fields such as mathematics and electronics, but if
you're looking for (or want to submit) words from other
subjects or general English words or other languages, try
{(http://wikipedia.org/)}, {(http://onelook.com/)},
{(http://yourdictionary.com/)} or
{(http://reference.allrefer.com/)}.

If you've already searched the dictionary for a computing term
and it's not here then please __don't tell me__. There are,
and always will be, a great many missing terms, no dictionary
is ever complete. I use my limited time to process the
corrections and definitions people have submitted and to add
the {most frequently requested missing terms (missing.html)}.

Try one of the sources mentioned above or
{(http://techweb.com/encyclopedia/)},
{(http://whatis.techtarget.com/)} or
{(http://google.com/)}.

See also the note on {bad cross-references (dangling.html)}.

What does ... mean? How do I ...? Where can I find ...?

I'm afraid I don't have time to answer personal requests for
definitions, help configure your PC, do your homework, or
explain what that Windoze error message means, etc. so please
__don't ask me__.

How do I submit a definition?

I'm afraid I can't accept any more new definitions at the moment, I
have a huge backlog awaiting processing.

(2007-08-02)

!

{exclamation mark}

"

{double quote}

#

{hash}

$

{dollar}

$1

The first {positional parameter} in {shell}
programming and related languages. Occurrences of $1 are
replaced by the first {actual argument} provided by the user
when the {shell script} is run. $2 is replaced by the second
argument, and so on up to $9.

You may have arrived at this entry by following a {URL} like
"http://foldoc.org?$1", which is actually a {template} used to
generate pointers to FOLDOC definitions by replacing "$1" with
the term to be defined, e.g. in a {wiki} {interwiki map}.

(2006-09-10)

%

{percent}

,

{comma}

0

{zero}